EXWORKS (EXW):The seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc.) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle. This term represents the minimum obligation for the seller, and the buyer has to bear all costs and risks involved in taking the goods from the seller’s premises.

FREE CARRIER (FCA):The seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goods at that place. If delivery occurs at the seller’s premises, the seller is responsible for loading. If delivery occurs at any other place, the seller is not responsible for unloading.

FREE ALONGSIDE SHIP (FAS) :The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

FREE ON BOARD (FOB):The seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the FCA term should be used.

COST AND FREIGHT (CFR):The seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any other costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the CPT term should be used.

COST INSURANCE FREIGHT (CIF):The seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any other costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the CIP term should be used.

CARRIAGE PAID TO (CPT):The seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any other costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier. The CPT term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

DELIVERED AT FRONTIER (DAF) :The seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export, but not cleared for import at the named point and place at the frontier, but before the customs border of the adjoining country. The term “frontier” may be used for any frontier including that of the country of export. Therefore, it is of vital importance that the frontier in question be defined precisely by always naming the point and place in the term. This term may be used for all modes of transport when the goods are to be delivered at a land frontier. When a delivery is to take place in the port of destination, on board a vessel, or on the quay (wharf), the DES or DEQ terms should be used.

DELIVERED EX SHIP (DES) :The seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship not cleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination before discharging. This term can only be used when the goods are to be delivered by sea or inland waterway or multimodal transport on a vessel in the port of destination.

DELIVERED EX QUAY (DEQ) :The seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer not cleared for import on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination and discharging the goods on the quay (wharf).The DEQ term requires the buyer to clear the goods for import and to pay for all formalities, duties, taxes and other charges upon import

DELIVERED DUTY UNPAID (DDU) :The seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto, other than, where applicable, any “duty” (which term includes the responsibility for and the risks of the carrying out of customs formalities, and the payment of formalities, customs duties, taxes, and other charges) for import in the country of destination. Such “duty” has to be borne by the buyer as well as any costs and risks caused by his failure to clear the goods for import in time. This term may be used for all modes of transport, but when delivery is to take place in the port of destination on board the vessel or on the quay (wharf), the DES or DEQ terms should be used.


DELIVERED DUTY PAID (DDP) :The seller delivers the goods to the buyer, cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. Whilst the EXW term represents the minimum obligation for the seller, DDP represents the maximum obligation. This term should not be used if the seller is unable directly or indirectly to obtain the import licence.


INTERNATIONAL DELIVERY TYPES...
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